Skip links

Fundamentals of Cybersecurity

Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting computers, networks, and systems from attacks via the Internet or inside the organization’s network. Cyber attackers goals are to access or destroy sensitive information; demand a ransom, or simply interrupt business operations.

Cyber attacks have become very popular in recent years, as people rely on IT devices, are more connected online, and hackers become more innovative. As a result, Cybersecurity is more important now than ever, at the same time, more challenging to businesses and IT professionals.

1) Types of security threat



Users sometimes receive emails whose senders are familiar and reputable, such as a major bank. The email content seems legitimate – for example, users are asked to click a link to verify something.

In reality, these links steal a user’s sensitive information, such as login credentials for online banking, or credit card numbers.

Phishing is the most common type of all cyber attacks.


As the name indicates, Ransomware is a type of software which demands a ransom. The ransomware would block users from being able to access their files or computers until the attackers receive the ransom.
However, it is not guaranteed that users will gain access to files and computers even after a ransom is paid. Many businesses will pay the ransom (paid in a crypto currency, so it can’t be traced). We would recommended never to do so.


Malware is malicious software is designed to cause damage to computers, servers, or networks; or simply to gain unauthorized access to files.

Social engineering

Hackers often use tactics – not related to IT, to trick users into revealing sensitive information. This practice usually works alongside other hacking methods mentioned above.
For example: a hacker might drop a few USB flash drives in a parking lot. Individials pick them up (people like “free” goodies!). They might then plug them into their work computers…
Because there are files on those USB drives, the end users are curious, click on them and known to them, begin a malicious attack on the company network.
"At Turbo IT Solutions, we spend our time focusing on protecting and educating our clients about cyber security. In this guide, we outline some Fundamentals of Cybersecurity."
Jonathan Yue sat at desk
Jonathan Yue
Founder, Turbo IT Solutions

2) How can cybersecurity protect us?

Of course, there are technologies that we can leverage to protect us from these issues,  however, technologies only make up one piece of Cybersecurity.

We believe a successful Cybersecurity practice should cover 3 factors: 

People | Processes | Technology

Users must understand the importance of Cybersecurity and comply with IT policies, such as choosing complex and long passwords.  They must also be educated to be careful with links and attachments in emails, report suspicious activities to IT administrators.

Human error was a major contributing cause in 95% of all security breaches* 
(*IBM Cyber Security Intelligence Index Report.)

Small businesses must build a framework on how to defend cyber-attacks, and how to recover should attacks succeed. The NIST Cybersecurity Framework is a great reference.

Technologies of the right choice must be deployed to shield from attacks. Common technologies for Cybersecurity include next-generation firewalls, DNS filtering, anti-malware/ransomware/virus software, and email security solutions.

IT elements which must be protected are:

  • Endpoint devices e.g., computers and smart devices.
  • Documents
  • Email services.
  • Network devices, such as switches, routers and firewalls.
  • Cloud applications.

Turbo IT Solutions can help you
with all of this and more …

We always start a new relationship with a client with a Cybersecurity Assessment

Security breaches can be costly, let alone the stress and frustration they incur.
It’s possible your network isn’t as secure as you might thing.  To protect your digital assets – hardware, software, and data, regular assessments should be performed.

A Cybersecurity Assessment, also known as Network Assessment, examines the security elements of your IT systems and finds out where vulnerabilities may exist. The assessment not only exposes your IT systems’ vulnerabilities but also identifies the risky behavior of employees so that they can be trained accordingly. The goal is to ensure that necessary security controls are incorporated into IT systems and procedures.

Our process:

We will determine the value of your IT assets and identify the scope of protection.

You can choose to include everything, or pick the critical components only. It’s always good to ask the question, what would happen if I lost this piece of infrastructure?

Don’t leave security to chance – let’s start a conversation …

Turbo IT Solutions has been protecting customers from Cybersecurity attacks since 2015.
Let us help protect your business too.